Ecological site distribution of sand fly species of Mokolo, an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Cameroon

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Biological Sciences

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Leishmaniasis is a vector borne disease present in two major clinical forms (cutaneous and visceral) in the northern part of Cameroon. The disease is classified as a neglected tropical disease by the World Health Organization and thus, requires more attention. The aim of this study was to correlate the previously established composition and abundance of sand fly fauna with the putative vector status and the ecological behavior in the Mokolo cutaneous leishmaniasis focus to propose fighting strategies integrating vectors control.

Over a 12-month period light traps were used for sand flies’ collection in urban, peri-urban and sylvatic environment found in Mokolo, an endemic focus of leishmanisis in northern Cameroon, microscope and taxonomic keys were used for their identification. Nineteen (19) species were identified belonging to the genera Sergentomyia, and Phlebotomus. The influence of human population density on sand fly's species density and composition was assessed trough the evaluation of ecological distribution of sand flies in Mokolo. It came out that, Se. coronula and Se. thomsoni mandarai are strictly wild species and Ph. duboscqi, a domestic species. The other species are generalists.The number of Se. antennata and Se. adami decreases with the increase of the density of human population while Se. distincta, Se. vorax and Ph. duboscqi increase with the density of human population in the study site. Based on its previous reports in the Leishmania transmission in West Africa, Ph. duboscqi should still be considered as the main suspected vector in Mokolo. Ph. duboscqi, Se. distincta, Se. affinis ssp. vorax and Se. schwetzi are highly represented around human dwellings.


This article was originally published in Acta Tropica. The full-text article from the publisher can be found here.

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Acta Tropica


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