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Department or Administrative Unit

Nutrition Exercise and Health Sciences

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Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic may have changed smoking habits. For the smoking population, information regarding smoking habits and the pandemic could potentially aid COVID-19 prevention and control measures. Our study aimed to analyze the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on tobacco consumption, nicotine dependence levels, and motivation for smoking cessation. We also collected information from smokers regarding their awareness of the consequences of tobacco use and the increased risks smokers have for severe complications from COVID-19.

Methods: In the survey for this observational cross-sectional study, 122 smokers responded to an online form. The participants provided general data about their smoking history, their smoking habits in the months of April and May 2020, and the effect of the pandemic on their smoking habits. They also completed a Fagerström test and were measured by the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale.

Results:When compared to pre-pandemic levels, the majority of smokers reported increased tobacco consumption of between 1 and 10 cigarettes per day (37.7%). Their motivation to quit smoking (59.8%) and desire to smoke (53.2%) were unchanged by the pandemic. Most participants demonstrated an awareness of the increased risks smokers have for severe COVID-19-related complications (p

Conclusions: Most smokers are well aware of their increased risks for severe COVID- 19-related complications. In the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil, most smokers reported increased cigarette consumption. In addition, motivation to quit and desire to smoke were unchanged for the majority of smokers.


This article was originally published open access in Tobacco Prevention & Cessation. The full-text article from the publisher can be found here.


Tobacco Prevention & Cessation

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


© 2022 Freire A. P. C. F. et al.