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The nonlinear progressive wave equation (NPE) [McDonald and Kuperman, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 81, 1406–1417 (1987)] is expressed in a form to accommodate changes in the ambient atmospheric density, pressure, and sound speed as the time-stepping computational window moves along a path possibly traversing significant altitude differences (in pressure scale heights). The modification is accomplished by the addition of a stratification term related to that derived in the 1970s for linear range-stepping calculations and later adopted into Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov-type nonlinear models. The modified NPE is shown to preserve acoustic energy in a ray tube and yields analytic similarity solutions for vertically propagating N waves in isothermal and thermally stratified atmospheres.
Edward McDonald, B., & Piacsek, A. A. (2011). Nonlinear progressive wave equation for stratified atmospheres. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 130(5), 2648–2653. https://doi.org/10.1121/1.3641403
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