The Mantle Transition Zone Beneath West Antarctica: Seismic Evidence for Hydration and Thermal Upwellings
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Although prior work suggests that a mantle plume is associated with Cenozoic rifting and volcanism in West Antarctica, the existence of a plume remains conjectural. Here we use P wave receiver functions (PRFs) from the Antarctic POLENET array to estimate mantle transition zone thickness, which is sensitive to temperature perturbations, throughout previously unstudied parts of West Antarctica. We obtain over 8000 high-quality PRFs using an iterative, time domain deconvolution method filtered with a Gaussian width of 0.5 and 1.0, corresponding to frequencies less than ∼0.24 and ∼0.48 Hz, respectively. Single-station and common conversion point stacks, migrated to depth using the AK135 velocity model, indicate that mantle transition zone thickness throughout most of West Antarctica does not differ significantly from the global average, except in two locations; one small region exhibits a vertically thinned (210 ± 15 km) transition zone beneath the Ruppert Coast of Marie Byrd Land and another laterally broader region shows slight, vertical thinning (225 ± 25 km) beneath the Bentley Subglacial Trench. We also observe the 520 discontinuity and a prominent negative peak above the mantle transition zone throughout much of West Antarctica. These results suggest that the mantle transition zone may be hotter than average in two places, possibly due to upwelling from the lower mantle, but not broadly across West Antarctica. Furthermore, we propose that the transition zone may be hydrated due to >100 million years of subduction beneath the region during the early Mesozoic.
Emry, E.L. et al. (2015). The mantle transition zone beneath West Antarctica: Seismic evidence for hydration and thermal upwellings. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 16(1), 40-58. DOI: 10.1002/2014GC005588
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems
Copyright © 2015 American Geophysical Union
This article was originally published in Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems and is available from the publisher here.