Diagnosing open-system magmatic processes using the Magma Chamber Simulator (MCS): part II—trace elements and isotopes
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The Magma Chamber Simulator (MCS) is a thermodynamic model that computes the phase, thermal, and compositional evolution of a multiphase–multicomponent system of a Fractionally Crystallizing resident body of magma (i.e., melt ± solids ± fluid), linked wallrock that may either be assimilated as Anatectic melts or wholesale as Stoped blocks, and multiple Recharge reservoirs (RnASnFC system, where n is the number of user-selected recharge events). MCS calculations occur in two stages; the first utilizes mass and energy balance to produce thermodynamically constrained major element and phase equilibria information for an RnASnFC system; this tool is informally called MCS-PhaseEQ, and is described in a companion paper (Bohrson et al. 2020). The second stage of modeling, called MCS-Traces, calculates the RASFC evolution of up to 48 trace elements and seven radiogenic and one stable isotopic system (Sr, Nd, Hf, 3xPb, Os, and O) for the resident melt. In addition, trace element concentrations are calculated for bulk residual wallrock and each solid (± fluid) phase in the cumulate reservoir and residual wallrock. Input consists of (1) initial trace element concentrations and isotope ratios for the parental melt, wallrock, and recharge magmas/stoped wallrock blocks and (2) solid-melt and solid–fluid partition coefficients (optional temperature-dependence) for stable phases in the resident magma and residual wallrock. Output can be easily read and processed from tabulated worksheets. We provide trace element and isotopic results for the same example cases (FC, R2FC, AFC, S2FC, and R2AFC) presented in the companion paper. These simulations show that recharge processes can be difficult to recognize based on trace element data alone unless there is an independent reference frame of successive recharge events or if serial recharge magmas are sufficiently distinct in composition relative to the parental magma or magmas on the fractionation trend. In contrast, assimilation of wallrock is likely to have a notable effect on incompatible trace element and isotopic compositions of the contaminated resident melt. The magnitude of these effects depends on several factors incorporated into both stages of MCS calculations (e.g., phase equilibria, trace element partitioning, style of assimilation, and geochemistry of the starting materials). Significantly, the effects of assimilation can be counterintuitive and very different from simple scenarios (e.g., bulk mixing of magma and wallrock) that do not take account phase equilibria. Considerable caution should be practiced in ruling out potential assimilation scenarios in natural systems based upon simple geochemical “rules of thumb”. The lack of simplistic responses to open-system processes underscores the need for thermodynamical RASFC models that take into account mass and energy conservation. MCS-Traces provides an unprecedented and detailed framework for utilizing thermodynamic constraints and element partitioning to document trace element and isotopic evolution of igneous systems. Continued development of the Magma Chamber Simulator will focus on easier accessibility and additional capabilities that will allow the tool to better reproduce the documented natural complexities of open-system magmatic processes.
Heinonen, J. S., Bohrson, W. A., Spera, F. J., Brown, G. A., Scruggs, M. A., & Adams, J. V. (2020). Diagnosing open-system magmatic processes using the Magma Chamber Simulator (MCS): part II—trace elements and isotopes. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 175(11). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-020-01718-9
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology
© The Author(s) 2020