Document Type

Graduate Project

Date of Degree Completion

Summer 1991

Degree Name

Master of Education (MEd)



Committee Chair

Randy Wallace

Second Committee Member

David N. Shorr

Third Committee Member

Franklin D. Carlson


The debate among phonics instruction and the whole language approach and the research supporting a balanced approach were examined. High utility phonics generalizations were identified from the literature. Those high utility phonics generalizations that were appropriate for the primary grades were applied to the vocabulary of a set of whole language readers. Lessons and activities were developed to integrate phonics instruction with the whole language materials for first grade students. Implications for further research and teacher training were discussed.