Clinical features and epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis and Leishmania major/HIV co-infection in Cameroon: results of a large cross-sectional study
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Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in Central Africa, including Cameroon. However, data on its prevalence and co-infection with HIV are scarce. Here we present the results of a large cross-sectional study reporting the prevalence, clinical features and species identification of CL and HIV co-infection in northern Cameroon. A total of 32466 subjects were clinically screened for CL during a door-to-door survey, followed by parasitological diagnosis in the field laboratory. Amongst the subjects surveyed, 146 (0.4%) were diagnosed with active CL. Seven (4.8%) of these 146 CL patients tested positive for HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. The number of lesions per CL patient ranged from 1 to 20. Three of the five subjects with >10 active lesions were co-infected with HIV. In both CL and HIV co-infected subjects, three successful parasite isolates were identified as Leishmania major by PCR. This first report of L. major/HIV co-infection in Cameroon and Central Africa confirms the endemicity of CL in the region and highlights a worsened CL pathology in HIV co-infected individuals. These findings provide important data necessary for the development and implementation of successful control programmes against CL and HIV in this geographical area.
Ngouateu, O. B., Kollo, P., Ravel, C., Dereure, J., Kamtchouing, P., Same-Ekobo, A., von Stebut, E., Maurer, M., & Dondji, B. (2012). Clinical features and epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis and Leishmania major/HIV co-infection in Cameroon: results of a large cross-sectional study. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 106(3), 137–142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trstmh.2011.10.012
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