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Geological Sciences

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The Adobe Hills region (California and Nevada, USA) is a faulted volcanic field located within the western Mina deflection, a right-stepping zone of faults that connects the northern Eastern California shear zone (ECSZ) to the south with the Walker Lane belt (WLB) to the north. New detailed geologic mapping, structural studies, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology in the Adobe Hills allow us to calculate fault slip rates and test predictions for the kinematics of fault slip transfer into the Mina deflection. The Adobe Hills are dominated by Pliocene tuffaceous sandstone, basaltic lavas that yield 40Ar/39Ar ages between 3.13 ± 0.02 and 3.43 ± 0.01 Ma, and basaltic cinder cones. These Pliocene units unconformably overlie Middle Miocene latite ignimbrite that yields an 40Ar/39Ar age of 11.17 ± 0.04 Ma, and Quaternary tuffaceous sands, alluvium, and lacustrine deposits cap the sequence. Northwest-striking normal faults, west-northwest–striking dextral faults, and northeast-striking sinistral faults cut all units; the northeast-striking sinistral faults are the youngest and most well developed fault set. We calculate ∼0.1 mm/yr of approximately east-west horizontal extension and northwest dextral shear since the Pliocene. The prominent northeast-striking sinistral faults offset basalt ridgelines, normal fault–hanging-wall intersections, a channelized basalt flow, a basalt flow edge, and a basalt flow contact a net minimum of 921 ± 184 to 1318 ± 264 m across the Adobe Hills. These measured sinistral offsets yield a minimum Pliocene sinistral fault slip rate of 0.2–0.5 mm/yr; our preferred minimum slip rate is 0.4–0.5 mm/yr. The geometry and orientation of the prominent sinistral faults are consistent with simple shear/couple clockwise block rotation within a broad dextral shear zone. Vertical axis block rotation data are needed to test this interpretation. We propose that a set of faults subparallel to Sierra Nevada–North America motion and associated releasing steps, located west of the White Mountains fault zone and east of the Long Valley Caldera, transfer a portion of dextral Owens Valley fault slip northwestward onto the sinistral faults in the Adobe Hills. Dextral slip distributed across faults between the White Mountains fault zone and the Sierra Nevada and east of the Fish Lake Valley fault zone may account for the apparent discrepancy between summed long-term geologic slip rates and present-day geodetic rates across the northern ECSZ. Fault slip in the Adobe Hills is part of a regional pattern of initiation and renewal of dextral, sinistral, and normal fault slip during the Pliocene that extends from lat ∼40°N to ∼36°N within the ECSZ-WLB and along the western margin of the Basin and Range Province. This regional deformation episode may be related to changes in gravitational potential energy.


This article was originally published in Geosphere. The full-text article from the publisher can be found here.




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