A Zooarchaeological Analysis of Hole-in-the-Wall Canyon (45KT12) and French Rapids (45KT13) Sites: Ginkgo State Park, Washington
Date of Degree Completion
Master of Science (MS)
Cultural and Environmental Resource Management
Patrick M. Lubinski
Second Committee Member
Third Committee Member
Patrick T. McCutcheon
A taxonomic and taphonomic faunal analysis was completed for the entire zooarchaeological collection (n=5,354) for two prehistoric archaeological housepit sites, Hole-in-the-Wall Canyon (45KT12) and French Rapids (45KT13). Both sites are located near Vantage, Washington, within the inundated area of the Wanapum Reservoir. Work focused on compiling site records, projectile point analysis, and radiocarbon dating in order to study site chronology, as well as the faunal analysis itself. Site 45KT12 includes at least two occupations; one occurring around 2000 cal B.P., and one beginning around 1100 cal B.P. and continuing at least through 650 cal B.P. A single analytical unit was defined for 45KT12, while the site 45KT13 assemblage was divided into five analytical units, dating from 10,000 cal B.P. to present, with most occupation postdating 2750 cal B.P. Faunal analysis results indicate utilization of large mammals at both sites including deer, bighorn sheep, elk, and bison. Large mammal remains dominate the assemblages along with river mussels. Other fauna include carnivores (felids and canids), and a small assortment of fish and small mammals. Results of faunal analysis and site chronology data from 45KT12 and 45KT13 were compared to 16 other analyzed faunal assemblages from the Priest Rapids-Wanapum Reservoirs. It was found that faunal assemblages are largely similar in represented taxa, with the most ubiquitous fauna being salmonids, leporids, cervids, bovids, and Western Pearlshell mussel. While differences in excavation methods may have resulted in slight differences in faunal assemblages between those excavated in the 1950s and 1960s, and those excavated more recently; the cultural faunal assemblages resulting from both types of work are comparable. This thesis demonstrates the utility of rehabilitation and analysis of aging archaeological collections.
Johnson, Matt, "A Zooarchaeological Analysis of Hole-in-the-Wall Canyon (45KT12) and French Rapids (45KT13) Sites: Ginkgo State Park, Washington" (2018). All Master's Theses. 1012.
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