Document Type


Date of Degree Completion

Spring 2023

Degree Name

Master of Public Health (MPH)

Committee Chair

Casey Mace-Firebaugh

Second Committee Member

Melody Madlem

Third Committee Member

Rebeca Pearson


Adverse drug events result in nearly 1.3 million emergency room visits per year in the United States of America. As much as 30% of these adverse events are a result of drug-drug interactions (DDI’s). There is a gap in knowledge concerning these DDI outcomes especially when it comes to inflammation. Inflammation is linked to a variety of chronic health conditions and non-infectious diseases such as cancer. Purpose: The goal of this study was to examine how many active drug ingredients from FDA’s Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS), when combined (in groups of two or more), elicit an inflammatory response and if drug pairs were identified as causing inflammation what were the symptoms? Methods: In this study secondary data was analyzed from the publicly available FAERS database. Cases that involved any of the five symptoms of inflammation (swelling, pain, chills, headache, red coloration) ranging from 1980 to August 5, 2022, were retrieved (n= 23,964). Followed by the removal of all cases not reported by healthcare professionals and those that only occurred once (n= 11,957) (See figure 1). Results: The data suggested that all these cases were related to 549 different drugs and 37 different drug combinations. Out of these combinations, three-drug combinations did not contain an active ingredient that elicited an effect alone (See Table 1). Discussion: Sense inflammation is associated with long-term disorders; Betamethasone Sodium Phosphate and Betamethasone Acetate which are used to treat long-term disorders, may lead to cancer.