Document Type


Date of Degree Completion

Spring 2023

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Primate Behavior

Committee Chair

Dr. Mary Radeke

Second Committee Member

Dr. Kara Gabriel

Third Committee Member

Dr. Joshua Buchanan

Fourth Committee Member

Dr. Louden Wright


Assessments of personality have been performed in numerous animal species. Studies that have undertaken this task have seen mixed results when comparing assessments of personality in a common population. Because of this, validity and reliability of personality assessments have been questioned. Taking place in three parts, this research tested the model of an existing personality trait assessment and compared it to a behavioral personality assessment. Study 1 examined the validity of the Hopper Short-Form Personality Assessment (HSFPA; Hopper et al., 2018). Here, no model fit indices of the data collected from the Great Plains Zoo (GPZ) fit the model proposed by Hopper et al. (2018). A principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted with the traits included in the HSPFA with the GPZ data and revealed 16 out of 22 of the traits loaded in the same dimension as Hopper et al.’s model. Study 2 describes the personality dimensions revealed using a behavioral personality assessment on the same population of Japanese macaques. The behavioral personality assessment revealed a four-dimension structure of personality with behavioral loadings that were somewhat perplexing. Study 3 compared the personality assessments from Studies 1 and 2 by examining the number of personality dimensions and the correlations between the individuals scores on each dimension. Both assessments had four personality dimensions. One dimension on the HSFPA correlated with one dimension on the behavioral personality assessment. An additional dimension on the HSFPA correlated with three dimensions on the behavioral personality assessment. Also, two dimensions on each assessment were correlated with age. Due to the different personality structures being revealed by both assessments, no one-to-one relationship with the dimensions across assessments, and half of the dimensions on both assessments being correlated with age, it was concluded that personality may not be able to be measured with behaviors at one point in time. Limitations of this study include a small sample size and low reliability scores on the HSFPA.

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