Joy D. Ferry

Document Type


Date of Degree Completion


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Cultural and Environmental Resource Management

Committee Chair

Patrik McCutcheon

Second Committee Member

Steve Hackenberger

Third Committee Member

Greg Burtchard


Archaeological research has recognized the importance of montane environments in the subsistence and settlement strategies of pre-contact peoples. Yet little is understood about variation in the manner in which pre-contact peoples were using upland environments. In order to ascertain whether there is functional and/or technological variation between montane sites in comparable environmental settings, four lithic assemblages (45PI406, 45PI408, 45PI429, and 45PI438) from sites in the upper maritime forest and subalpine zone of Mount Rainier were compared. An evolutionary archaeology model was applied to define and measure variables relevant to stone tool manufacture and use. Statistically significant non-random associations were contextualized within the known environmental constraints and regional land use models for upland subsistence and settlement strategies in the southern Washington Cascades. Overall results indicate that the assemblages are dominated by debitage, and are consistent with those produced as a result of tool manufacture by semi-sedentary groups at limited activity sites. However, the assemblages differ synchronically in both technological and functional organization, indicating that local microenvironments and climate regimes significantly influenced stone tool manufacture and use.

APPENDIX (1775 kB)
Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

Appendix D.docx (1993 kB)
Appendic D