Document Type


Date of Degree Completion

Fall 2023

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Cultural and Environmental Resource Management

Committee Chair

Dr. Steven Hackenberger

Second Committee Member

Dr. Patrick McCutcheon

Third Committee Member

Dr. Karl Lillquist


Recent advances in 3-D scanning and printing offer the means for experimental archaeologists to utilize reproductions of artifacts for analysis and interpretation. In this case study I accurately reproduce a sample of Columbia Plateau projectile points, measure their ballistic properties with an experimental approach, and test the effectiveness and function of point types representing different time periods. Eight morphologically distinct projectile points were 3-D scanned, printed, and test fired into a clay target. Velocity, kinetic energy, momentum, penetration, and wound channel size were measured. Results indicate all eight arrow mounted point types were suitable for small to medium game. Variations in the performance of tested point types most likely indicate differences in intended prey, delivery system strength, and/or hunting strategy. Performance across time periods was variable; however, measured variables represent general improvement in effectiveness over time. Techniques for 3-D scanning and printing replicas in aluminum proved to be an economical and practical technique for testing replica artifacts. Results suggest that replicas should be utilized in future experimental testing of point performance and effectiveness.