Document Type


Date of Degree Completion

Fall 2023

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Cultural and Environmental Resource Management

Committee Chair

Patrick T. McCutcheon

Second Committee Member

Steven Hackenberger

Third Committee Member

Amanda Taylor

Fourth Committee Member

Greg Burtchard


Two open-air residential basecamp sites at Mount Rainier, the Buck Lake site and the Sunrise Ridge Borrow Pit site, are analyzed and compared using a protocol designed to identify variation in stone tool manufacture and use. This research employs a model rooted in evolutionary archaeology theory. The model uses the variables of cost and performance to measure lithic variation, which is often subtle, across space and time. Selective conditions differ over time at the two sites’ locations and appear to drive lithic variation in the archaeological record. The Buck Lake and Sunrise Ridge Borrow Pit sites share many similarities, likely due to the constraints upon stone tool manufacture and use related to the harsh upland environment. There is also variation between the sites, which is likely due to differing selective conditions such as microenvironments, situation in the landscape, proximity to tool stone sources, differences in floral and faunal communities and the availability and abundance of associated resources.

45PI438 Lithic Analysis.xlsx (816 kB)
45PI438 Lithic Analysis

45PI408 Lithic Analysis.xlsb (9145 kB)
45PI408 Lithic Analysis

Available for download on Saturday, December 20, 2025