Document Type


Date of Degree Completion

Spring 2015

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Resource Management

Committee Chair

Steven Hackenberger

Second Committee Member

Patrick T. McCutcheon

Third Committee Member

Shane Scott


Analysis of the stone tools from the Sanders Site reveals trends in the development of stone tool technology and settlement patterns within the Yakima Uplands west of the Middle Columbia River. The Sanders Site collection provides exceptional opportunity for the study of stratified components that date between 9000 and 1000 years ago. Three components include evidence of stone tool manufacture using local bog stone along with refuse from seasonal hunting and plant gathering. Identification of projectile point morphologies support temporal assignments for each component, and reflect shifts from dart to bow hunting. Analysis of all the bifacial formed tools (raw material, use wear, and breakage patterns) demonstrate changes in technological organization related to transitions from foraging to collecting strategies by 3000 years ago. This change in technological organization is often explained as a shift from curated to expedient tool use. This change includes collecting and storing resources, residential base stations, increased artifact frequencies and percentages of manufacturing breaks, and use of local stone tool sources. These changes also resulted in a diminished utilization of exotic stone tool sources. Diagnostic projectile points correlate with established regional cultural chronologies. Small sample sizes from the early component and incomplete dating are limitations in this investigation.