Document Type


Date of Degree Completion

Spring 2016

Degree Name

Education Specialist (Ed.S.)


School Psychology

Committee Chair

Dr. Stephanie Stein

Second Committee Member

Dr. Liane Pereira

Third Committee Member

Dr. Heidi Bogue


Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, a neurological disorder characterized by inattentive and hyperactive behaviors, has become increasingly more prevalent (CDC, 2010). Recent research has found associations between this disorder and Caesarean section births (Amiri et al., 2012; Juarez et al., 2008). The current study examined the relationship between C-section birth and self-reported symptoms of ADHD by college students on the Internal Restlessness Scale (Weyandt et al., 2003). Results of the study indicate a significant difference in mean ratings of ADHD symptoms between C-section and vaginally born participants (t = 3.683, p < .000). The current study supports previous findings of a relationship between C-sections and ADHD.