Evan WestFollow


Metaphysics has long taken for granted that causation is a binary relation. Recently, theories have arisen which challenge this claim. Such theories claim that some metaphysical problems regarding causation can be solved by taking causation to be ternary or quaternary. I respond to an argument that a quaternary formulation of causation can help resolve the causality of absences paradox (CAP). I reject this claim and propose an alternative solution to the CAP, which I argue is both consistent with a binary formulation of causal relations and preferable to the solution which a quaternary formulation allows for.