Nature of learning environment in concurrent enrollment mathematics classrooms: a cluster analysis

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Concurrent enrollment programs, which allow college credit-bearing classes to be offered in the high school taught by qualified high-school teachers, are a potential solution to the student debt issues impacting the United States and other countries. However, the learning environments of these rapidly-growing programs have never been studied. Because concurrent enrollment classes are taught in high schools with college-level rigour, they present a learning environment that is distinct from both high-school and college classrooms. This study had two broad goals of (1) determining if the What Is Happening In this Class? (WIHIC) questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument for the concurrent enrollment environment and, if so, (2) investigating the learning environments of 68 concurrent enrollment teachers’ classrooms using the WIHIC. The WIHIC was found to be valid and reliable, and cluster analysis of the concurrent enrollment classes revealed three distinct types of learning environments which we labeled ‘most conducive’ for learning, ‘conducive’ and ‘least conducive’. A follow-up discriminant function analysis revealed that the WIHIC scales of teacher support, involvement and student cohesion were most influential in determining cluster membership.


This article was originally published in Learning Environments Research. The full-text article from the publisher can be found here.

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Learning Environments Research


© Springer Nature B.V. 2019