Document Type


Department or Administrative Unit

IT and Administrative Management

Publication Date



This study investigates the impact of written group feedback, versus audio feedback, based upon four student satisfaction measures in the online classroom environment. Undergraduate students in the control group were provided both individual written feedback and group written feedback, while undergraduate students in the experimental treatment group were provided both individual written feedback and audio group feedback. Using a one-tailed t-test, the four student satisfaction measures were analyzed and one was found to be significant for students’ perception that the instructor seemed genuinely concerned with whether students learned. The authors believe the study, when combined with their previous research, has significant impact on understanding strategies for improving instructor effectiveness with online students. Furthermore, the authors believe this area of student satisfaction resides primarily in positive perceptions of instructors’ engagement and “social presence.” In addition, the authors believe the provision of audio feedback (either individual or group) to be more time efficient, while allowing for increased instructor creativity. Finally, the use of audio feedback may be perceived as more accessible or practical by the student, rather than written feedback alone.


This article was originally published in Journal of Educators Online. The full-text article from the publisher can be found here.


Journal of Educators Online